Introduction

This site contains supplemental materials for Stat 1201, mainly: 1) clarifications on which sections we cover in the textbook (Devore, Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences 9th edition), 2) R code, and 3) links to helpful resources online. It is not in any way a substitute for materials available in CourseWorks.

If you find additional online resources that are helpful to this class, please create an issue or send me an email and I’ll add them to this resource. Let me know as well if you find any typos or other mistakes.

Note that while you’re encouraged to look ahead, be sure to circle back to those sections when they’re covered in class since content may be added or modified slightly.

General study tips

The website for the book Make It Stick offers a summary of the experimentally tested study strategies. The tl;dr is:

  • working out problems is better than reviewing notes / textbook

  • doing mixed reviews is better than focusing on one type of problem at a time

  • learning is hard work; if it seems too easy your study strategy might not be the most effective

  • making mistakes and learning from them is a useful strategy (don’t wait until you’ve mastered all of the examples to try a problem)

You’ve likely heard a lot of these ideas before, but it’s worth really thinking about them and putting them into practice.

My advice:

  • As you’re reading the textbook or working on a problem set, keep a list of questions. Challenge yourself by thinking about how the problem would differ if you changed the setup.

  • Try creating your own questions and solving them.

  • Try solving problems in multiple ways.

  • Learn from a variety of sources: class, textbook, Cartoon Guide, etc. If you find differences, ask.

Installing R

You will need to install two applications: R and RStudio:

  • R – the programming language itself – is available here:

https://cran.r-project.org

  • RStudio – an integrated development environment (IDE) which makes it much easier to use R. It is optional but highly recommended. This is the app you will open to use R. Choose the free version of RStudio Desktop:

https://www.rstudio.com/products/rstudio/download/#download

Getting Started with R: Working in the Console

The first step in getting started is getting comfortable working in the RStudio console. It works like a calculator in the sense that your work is not saved. Do the following:

Watch the video

Quick review of material covered in the video, plus additional examples

Working in the console pane is similar to a using a calculator: each line of code is executed when you press enter. Note that your work is not saved with this approach.

Assigning a variable

Drawing a stem and leaf plot

Basic operations:

3 + 4
## [1] 7
3 - 4
## [1] -1
3 * 4
## [1] 12
3 / 4
## [1] 0.75
3^4
## [1] 81
sqrt(3)
## [1] 1.732051

Working with vectors:

x <- 1:5
x
## [1] 1 2 3 4 5
sum(x)
## [1] 15
cumsum(x)
## [1]  1  3  6 10 15
px <- x*.05 + .05
px
## [1] 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

Expected value:

x*px
## [1] 0.1 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.5
sum(x*px)
## [1] 3.5

More examples

Read and try the examples in Chapter 1 of Introduction to R

Creating Graphs, Saving your work

Video

Saving code as an .R file

(Also covered in video above)

Saving with this method saves only the code, not the output. Below are two methods for creating .html documents that contain both code and output:

Convert .R file to .html

(Also covered in video above)

Contact

Joyce Robbins: Columbia Profile

GitHub